Paper 3 – Infrastructure – PORT
Coastal Shipping to get a boost as Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust and Karwar Port get Grants-in-aid under Sagarmala Coastal Berth Scheme
- Sagar Mala projectis a strategic and customer-oriented initiative of the Government of India to modernize India’s Ports so that port-led development can be augmented and coastlines can be developed to contribute in India’s growth.
- It looks towards “transforming the existing Ports into modern world class Ports and integrate the development of the Ports, the Industrial clusters and hinterland and efficient evacuation systems through road, rail, inland and coastal waterways resulting in Ports becoming the drivers of economic activity in coastal areas
- The Sagarmala Development Companywas given the nod for incorporation by Indian Cabinet on 20th July 2016 with an initial authorized share capital of Rs 1000 Crore and subscribed share capital of Rs 90 Crore, to give a push to port-led development.
Jawajarlal Nehru port trust and Karwar Port:
- Jawaharlal Nehru Port, also known as Nhava Sheva, is the largest container port in India. Located east of Mumbaiin Maharashtra, the port on the Arabian Sea is accessed via Thane Creek.
- Karwar port is located at Baithkol, Karwar Bay. Hills and coastal islands make the port a natural harbour, sheltered from the Arabian sea. The port which is operated by the Government of Karnataka, services the hinterland of northern Karnataka, Goa and southern Maharashtra.
Paper2 – Aspects of Governance
Linking of Aadhaar:
- The government has proposed extending the deadline for mandatory linking of Aadhaar with bank accounts and mobile phones from December 31, 2017 to March 31, 2018, but only for those who are “willing to enrol for Aadhaar.”
- The proposal was contained in a one-page note that was passed on to a Bench led by Chief Justice of India Dipak Misra on Wednesday. The note, however, insisted that those who already have Aadhaar will be “required” to sync their numbers with SIM cards, bank accounts, PAN and “other schemes where Section 7 (Aadhaar Act) notifications have been issued.”
- Aadhaar, which means ‘ foundation’ is a 12 digit unique-identity number issued to all Indian residents based on their biometricand demographic data. The data is collected by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), a statutory authority established in January 2009 by the Government of India, under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, under the provisions of the Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and other Subsidies, benefits and services) Act, 2016.
- Aadhaar is the world’s largest biometric ID system, with over 1.171 billion enrolled members as of 15 Aug 2017.
Paper – 3 – Science
Fish Lizard Fossil form Kutch
- The 5.5 metre ichthyosaur, believed to be at least 90 million years old, points to India’s evolutionary links
- A near-complete Jurassic-era fossil of an intriguing animal that looks like a mashup of a dolphin and lizard has been unearthed in Kutch, Gujarat.
- “But the bone was too long and later the whole skeleton was unearthed. It’s the first Jurassic ichthyosaur find in India.
- Ichthyosaurs or ‘fish- lizards’ in Greek were large reptiles that lived at the same time as dinosaurs.
- Ichthyosaurs thrived during much of the Mesozoic era; based on fossil evidence, they first appeared around 250 million years ago (Mya) and at least one species survived until about 90 million years ago, into the Late Cretaceous.
Significance of the discovery
- This also throws light on the evolution and diversity of ichthyosaurs in the Indo-Madagascan region of the former Gondwanaland and India’s biological connectivity with other continents in the Jurassic.”
- Identification of the new specimen may further throw light on whether there was any marine connection between India and South America about 150 million years ago.
Paper 3 – Economy, planning
$300 Million Loan to Promote Further Fiscal Reforms in West Bengal
The first ADB policy-based loan of $400 million was sanctioned in 2012 for the first West Bengal Development Finance Program.
Asian Development Bank (ADB):
Asian Development Bank (ADB) ADB is a regional development bank which aims to promote social and economic development in Asia. It was established on 19 December 1966. It is headquartered in Manila, Philippines. The ADB has been modelled closely on the World Bank. It has 67 members, of which 48 are are from within Asia and the Pacific and 19 outside
Paper 2: Policies
Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the Rs16,320-crore Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana, or Saubhagya, on Monday evening to provide electricity connections to over 40 million families in rural and urban areas by December 2018.
The scheme funds the cost of last-mile connectivity to willing households to help achieve the goal of lighting every household by 31 December 2018.
- Despite the government’s aggressive village electrification programme, the Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojana launched in July 2015, under which 78% of 18,000 villages have been electrified, it was realised that the problem of electricity ‘access’ wasn’t resolved.
- Scheme aims at ensuring the coverage of households as opposed to only villages.
How will it help?
- It was seen that the electricity distribution companies (discoms) don’t want to supply to the villages even if the electrification has taken place.
- By providing electricity access to all households with prepaid and smart meters, demand will be created which in turn will force the discoms to supply to these villages.
- Lighting in turn will also help in improving education, health, connectivity with the multiplier effect of increased economic activities and job creation.
No. With no subsidy component for monthly electricity consumption, the Gram Panchayat and public institutions in the rural areas will be authorised to carry out billing and collection tasks which have been pain points for the discoms.
States have also been provided with an incentive of 50% of their loan being converted to grants, if the electrification targets are met by 31 December 2018.
How will it work?
- To ensure on-the-spot registration, mobile applications will be used. While free connections will be provided to below poverty line (BPL) households, even those not covered under this category can avail it by paying Rs500 in 10 instalments of Rs50 each along with their monthly bill.
- For those household where the national electricity grid can’t reach, households will be provided with solar power packs along with battery banks. State-run Rural Electrification Corp. is the nodal agency for the scheme.
How will the beneficiaries be identified?
The beneficiaries for free electricity connections will be identified using Socio Economic and Caste Census (SECC) 2011 data.
- Pump and Dump: “Pump and dump” (P&D) is a form of microcap stock fraud that involves artificially inflating the price of an owned stock through false and misleading positive statements, in order to sell the cheaply purchased stock at a higher price.
- World Development Report: The World Bank’s World Development Report, published annually since 1978, is an invaluable guide to the economic, social, and environmental state of the world today. Each report provides in-depth analysis and policy recommendations on a specific and important aspect of development—from agriculture, the role of the state, transition economies, and labor to infrastructure, health, the environment, and poverty.